Saturday, July 25, 2020

How I Spent IAP

How I Spent IAP I have simultaneously done nothing and everything this IAP. After an exciting ten day family vacation in Japan and Hong Kong (highlights include: that time I petted multiple owls, and that time I ate three bowls of ramen in one night), I’ve been spending virtually all of my IAP at home studying for the MCAT, the next great obstacle between me and medical school. The 6+ hour exam was scheduled for Friday, January 22nd, so I spent the three weeks leading up to that date poring over a complete set of Examkrackers MCAT books and various online practice exams. There’s not really much else to say about those dark, dark weeks. When you think about it, the concept of IAP is pretty amazing. It’s an entire month of freedom. No longer are we bound by the 36 credit minimum or other constraints and boundaries set for us as students. Instead, we are given autonomy to make our own decisions regarding the time allocation of our lives. Time is money, and IAP is essentially like being handed a briefcase full of hundred dollar bills every year, no strings attached. Some people choose to spend their windfall on travelling abroad, working an externship, or relaxing at home. There really are no bounds to what you decide to do (although I guess technically you are bounded by the law and also physics and other trifling things like that). From a pre-med perspective, its invaluable in many ways. For me, it was mostly that I had four pristine weeks, neither burdened by the distracting academic load of a semester, nor the lamentable theft of our student-given right to a winter/summer vacation, during which I could study for the MCAT undisturbed. I did some studying over the summer, but decided that ultimately I hadnt devoted enough time and would not be ready for the September test date. So I blocked off IAP for some intensive studying and nothing else. Thankfully, the MCAT concluded last Friday so I’ve had this last week to relax and destress before the spring semester starts. Most of my free time has been spent consuming as much media as I possibly can before I become otherwise occupied with classes and other responsibilities. Sometimes what you really need after a really long stretch of studying, is to sprawl out on the sofa and settle into some good books and movies. 98% of Krystal’s who were polled would recommend this real science true method of relaxation (source: none). At the bottom of this post, I’ve included a starter pack of movies and books that I watched/read this month if you too would like to try Krystal’s Real Science True Method of Relaxation. Of course, some of these movies were awful and not all of the books I read provided the same amount of enjoyment, but I find that it is predominantly the act itself â€" slipping into someone else’s world and experiencing something new and exciting and sometimes meaningful, even just for a little bit â€" that calms me down. Just for fun, I’ve also included a one sentence quote from my brain that either summarizes the plot or contains one of my many offhanded reactions to the book or movie. I’ll try to keep it relatively spoiler free, but I make no promises about run-on sentences or grammatical correctness. Feel free to leave any recommendations, rebuttals, opinions etc. below! Books: The Magicians by Lev Grossman Its as if the Harry Potter series and the Chronicles of Narnia had a baby and people are always saying things to it like, “you have your mother’s nose!” or “you must have gotten your fantasy-world-ruled-by-speaking-animal-gods-that-is-at-one-point-also-ruled-by-a-bunch-of-young-siblings from your father!” The Magician King by Lev Grossman In my favorite book of the series, more shenanigans happen in the fantasy world, but also, half of the book is a jarring account of a girls attempts to learn magic outside of the privileged magical school system. The Magician’s Land by Lev Grossman Wow, trilogies are all the rage these days and also I thought the ending was pretty meh, though there was this one plot point about revenge that was quite satisfying.   The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo by Stieg Larsson The international best seller that has both an extremely boring first chapter and a lot of references to Swedish things that I have never heard of, but which should definitely not stop you from reading the rest of it because its a mystery and a thriller and I totally did not see that ending coming.   Ready Player One by Ernest Cline Exorbitant quantities of 1980s pop culture are wrapped up in a plot driven by a shiny virtual reality game contest with billions of dollars at stake that is inexplicably dominated by teenagers, despite the fact that literally anyone can participate.   Movies (date of release) â€" Director: Sixth Sense (1999) â€" M. Night Shyamalan Bruce Willis has hair! Contact (1997) â€" Robert Zemeckis Despite an arguably faulty use of Occams Razor at a major turning point for the protagonist, the movie ends up being a thought-provoking movie about contact with extraterrestrial beings, plus for some reason Matthew McConaughey is there. What We Do in the Shadows (2014) â€" Jemaine Clement and Taika Waititi Mockumentary about vampire roommates that have just as many problems as regular people roommates. Matilda (1996) â€" Danny DeVito Girl moves things with her brain because her parents neglect her and force her to eat frozen dinners. Ex Machina (2015) â€" Alex Garland Pretty interesting movie about artificial intelligence, the Turing Test, and an ending that didn’t make me want to throw my laptop out the window. Bringing Up Baby (1938) â€" Howard Hawks An archeologist is pestered by Katharine Hepburn and they search for a runaway pet leopard and dinosaur bones. Rope (1948) â€" Alfred Hitchcock Two people murder another person just for the heck of it and then have a party where they serve food on top of the chest containing the body because why not? Panic Room (2002) â€" David Fincher Tiny Kristen Stewart and her mom spend most of the movie in a giant metal box. Badlands (1973) â€" Terrence Malick If you enjoy flat characters, pointless murders, and wide shots of barren plains, you’ll love this movie! The Conversation (1974) â€" Francis Ford Coppola A man who is hired to eavesdrop on a conversation wrestles with his moral conscience, and then at the end sits on the floor and plays the saxophone (this isnt a spoiler, I think). The Martian (2015) â€" Ridley Scott I watched this one in the dollar theater although it actually cost two whole dollars to watch. The Signal (2014) â€" William Eubank Would have been a largely forgettable movie except I managed to guess the plot twist twenty minutes into the movie which I consider a crowning achievement for me, so there’s that. Fargo (1996) â€" Joel and Ethan Coen A movie that is predominantly about Minnesota accents but I guess also technically about a kidnapping gone wrong. The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2009) â€" Niels Arden Oplev The Swedish adaption of the above mentioned novel that is three hours long and stays fairly faithful to its source material. The Crying Game (1992) â€" Neil Jordan I only watched this movie because someone on the internet said it had the biggest twist in movie history, except I think that statement is an exaggeration and also I’m not entirely sure what happened in the second half of the movie TBH.

Thursday, June 11, 2020

Soft Power Essay - 550 Words

Soft Power (Essay Sample) Content: Soft PowerNameInstitutionDateIntroductionThe ruling of the world has greatly changed due to the current efforts by mot countries to improve n the diplomatic ties among countries. The improvements of the form of world leadership and the expression of power also depend on the final effect that the power form may inflict on the people. Soft power has proved to be one of the most fast growing methods that are being employed by different countries in the acquisition and manipulation of power towards the achievement of global goals for a particular country.Soft power is basically the use of general agreeable terms and internationals standards in order to determine various aspects of power. It is a method that helps to reduce the use of extreme force or payments in order to acquire power. Oft power has become more qualitative than quantitative in the course of its application and adaption by different countries. Currently, soft power does not depend on the amount of influenc e that a country possesses. On the contrary, it entirely depends on the attendance of different measurable factors in order to determine the level of power of a country. This has helped to strike a balance between the known superpowers and other countries (Bloomfield, 2011).However, soft power has also shown unreliable weaknesses for use by some countries. Some countries have found it difficult to meet the means of meeting the factors that help to determine the level of soft power. This has mainly tended to affect the developed countries and other countries that had been initially known to be politically powerful. For instance, most countries in Europe have been overpowered gradually by countries from Asia such as China (Bloomfield, 2011).Counties that have held a proper position in terms of economic strength, politics and international relations such as the United States of America have however been able to retain their powerful positions despite the applications of the soft power principles to determine the state of power of countries. The use of soft power has helped the developing countries to gain a powerful position towards matching other developed countries (Bloomfield, 2011).Globalization is a factor that entirely depends on the state of power of different countries. In order for countries to coordinate in international commitments and work together to achieve a common economic objective, they have to stand on a common ground in terms of power and ...

Friday, May 22, 2020

Dividend And Retention Policies Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 3930 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Tata Steel Ltd is the worlds 10th largest steel company and the worlds 2nd most geographically diversified steel producer. The company is a diversified steel producer with major operations in India, Europe and South East Asia. They have manufacturing units in 26 countries and a presence in 50 European and Asian markets. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Dividend And Retention Policies Finance Essay" essay for you Create order The company together with their subsidiaries, engages in the manufacture and sale of steel products in India and internationally. They offer hot and cold rolled coils and sheets, galvanized sheets, tubes, wire rods, construction rebars and bearings. The company also involves in prospecting, discovering, and mining iron ore, coal, ferro alloys, and other minerals; designing and manufacturing plants and equipment for steel, oil and natural gas, energy and power, mining, railways, ports, aviation, and space industries; and agricultural implements. Further, they offers alumina, dolomite, and monolithic refractories, as well as silica refractories for coke ovens and the glass industry; manufactures bricks; sponge iron lumps and fines; and rolls for applications in integrated steel plants, power plants, and government mint, as well as paper, textile, and food processing sectors. Tata Steels operations are grouped under six Strategic Business Units include Bearings Division, Ferro Alloys an d Minerals Division, Agrico Division, Tata Growth Shop (TGS), Tubes Division and Wire Division. They have introduced several branded steel products, including Tata Steelium (the worlds first branded Cold Rolled Steel), Tata Shaktee (Galvanised Corrugated Sheets), Tata Tiscon (rebars), Tata Pipes, Tata Bearings, Tata Structural, Tata Agrico (hand tools and implements) and Tata Wiron (galvanised wire products). Tata Steel Ltd was incorporated in the year 1907 with the name Tata Iron Steel Company Ltd. In the year 1911, the company commenced the operations of the first Blast Furnace or the A Blast Furnace. In December 2, 1911, the fist collieries were obtained and the first cast of pig iron was produced. In they ear 1912, the first ingot of steel rolled out of the Sakchi Plant and in October 1912, the Bar Mills started their commercial production. Also, the B Blast Furnace became operational during the year. In the year 1918, Indias first steel (coke) plant was established in Jamshedp ur. In the year 1925, the New Rail Mill, Merchant Mill and Sheet Mill went into operation. In the year 1931, they opened a apprentice shop. In the year 1941, they started manufacture of special steel for war purpose. They produced a wide variety of special steels required for defense purposes including armoured cars called Tatanagars. In the year 1943, Howrah Bridge was constructed from steel supplied by the company. In the year 1955, the company signed an agreement with Kaiser Engineers for two million tonne expansion programme. In the year 1980, they started the first phase of the four-phased modernisation programme. In the year 1984, the company introduced BOF steelmaking, which could produce liquid steel in forty five minutes when it took the old open hearth furnaces, close to five hundred under the first phase of modernisation. During the year 1984-85, Indian Tubes Company Ltd was amalgamated with the company. The second phase of modernisation was in the year 1988, which concen trated largely on the iron-making area. During the year 1993-94, the company commissioned the Hot Strip Mill with the capacity of one million tonne per annum which was the companys third modernisation programme. In the year 2000, the company inaugurated the 1.2 million tonnes Cold Rolling Mill Complex as a first step towards expansion and modernisation. In January 2, 2004, The Indian Steel Wire Products Company was acquired at Jamshedpur. In June 4, 2005, the company signed an MoU for setting up a five-million tonne per annum Greenfield integrated steel plant in the Jagdalpur district of Chhattisgarh. In July 2005, they formed a joint venture with Blue Scope Steel Ltd, Australia for quoted steel manufacturing facility. In July 21, 2005, the company acquired stakes in the Australian coal mines. In August 2005, the company set up Met coke manufacturing facility in West Bengal. In September 19, 2005, the company signed an MoU with the Government of Jharkhand for setting up a 12-million tonnes per annum Greenfield integrated steel plant in the Manoharpur and Chandil areas of Jharkhand. In December 14, 2005, they signed definite agreement with Cementhai Holding Company to acquire shares and invest equity in the Milennium Steel, Thailand. Also, the name of the company was changed from Tata Iron Steel Company Ltd to Tata Steel Ltd with effect from May 19, 2005. In the year 2006, the company inaugurated Indias first automated Jigging and Hydrocyclone Plant, with a 1.6 MTPA throughput, at Noamundi Iron Mines. They commenced the work on Ferro Chrome Plant by acquiring Rawnet Ferrous Industries Pvt Ltd, in Orissa, a Ferro Alloys plant with a capacity of 50,000 tpa of high carbon chrome. They set up a Joint Venture Company with Larsen and Toubro Ltd for developing an all weather modern deep water port in the state of Orissa on the Eastern Coast of India. Tata NYK Shipping Pte Ltd, a joint venture shipping company between the company and Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha was set up to cater to dry and break bulk cargo and also the shipping activities. In August 7, 2006, the company inaugurated the Roll Forming and Pre-Engineered Building Facilities of Tata Bluescope Ltd at Pune. In April 2, 2007, the company acquired Corus Europes second largest steel producer for consideration of USD 12 Billion, which made Tata Steel the sixth largest steel producer globally and the second-most geographically diversified steel producer in the world. They also entered into an agreement for acquiring controlling equity stake in two rolling mills located in Haiphorg, Vietnam. Also, they signed a joint venture agreement with Riversdale Mining for Mozambique coal project. In December 2007, the company and SODEMI (state owned company for mineral development) entered into joint venture agreement for the development of Mount Nimba Iron ore deposits in Ivory Coast (West Africa). In January 2008, the company and the members of the Al Bahja Group, a leading business house of Oman entered into a Joint Venture Agreement for the development of the Uyun Limestone deposits at Salalah in the Sultanate of Oman. Also, they entered an agreement with Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) to establish a 50:50 joint venture company for coal mining in India. In February 2008, they opened their fourth retail outlet, steeljunction at Behala. During the year 2008-09, the company completed the expansion of crude steel capacity to 6.8 mtpa as part of their expansion programme. Also, they commissioned Sinter Plant No. 4, the H Blast Furnace and the Continuous Caster No. 3 at LD Shop-1 during this expansion phase. In June 16, 2008, the company and their wholly owned subsidiary, Rawmet Ferrous Industries Ltd entered into an agreement with Jasper Industries Pvt Ltd for set up a coal based power plant of 2 X 67.5 MW capacity in Orissa. In September 2008, the company through their subsidiaries signed a Heads of Agreement memorandum with New Millennium Capital Corporation (NML), a Ca nadian listed mining company aiming to develop iron ore projects in Northern Quebec, Labrador and Newfoundland provinces. As part of the restructuring of the overseas holdings, the company transferred their stake in Tata Steel (Thailand) Public Company Ltd to Tata Steel Global Holdings Pte Ltd. The company subscribed 35,88,022 rights shares of Tayo Rolls Ltd and consequently, Tayo Rolls Ltd has become a subsidiary of the Company with effect from December 01, 2008. In October 22, 2009, the company and Mineral and Metal Trading Company Ltd signed an agreement to establish a 74:26 joint venture company for acquiring, development and operation of mines and processing of minerals and metals. During the financial year 2009-10, Hooghly Met Coke and Power Company Ltd was amalgamated with the company with effect from April 1, 2009. The construction of a warehousing shed and a building for a power receiving sub-station had started at one corner of the plant area. They increased the production capacity of Crude Steel from 61,10,000 tonnes to 68,00,000 tonnes, Saleable Steel from 58,40,000 tonnes to 65,00,000 tonnes and Welded Steel Tubes from 2,84,000 tonnes to 2,88,000 tonnes. In October 2009, the company entered into agreement with MMTC Limited, a Central Government undertaking and established a joint venture company for acquiring, developing and operating mines and processing of minerals and metals. In November 2009, they signed a Joint Venture Agreement with NML, to advance the development of the DSO Project. In January 2010, the company entered into an MoU with NMDC Ltd, to explore the possibility of acquisition, exploration and development of mines, extraction and processing of minerals, setting up integrated steel plants and other businesses of mutual interest. In April 6, 2010, the company entered in an MoU with Nippon Steel Corporation (NSC), Japan for setting up a Continuous Annealing and Processing Line at Jamshedpur, India with 0.6 mtpa capacity. In June 2010 , the company subscribed to a private placement of Canadian $20 million by NML pursuant to which Tata Steel Global Minerals Holding Pte Ltd holds a 27.4% stake in NML. In June 2010, the company and Tata Metaliks Ltd entered into an MoU with the Government of Karnataka in June 2010 for setting up an integrated steel plant of 3 mtpa in Agadi and Boodagatti villages of Haveri District, Karnataka. In August 2010, the companys subsidiary Corus UK Ltd and Sahaviriya Steel Industries Public Company Ltd (SSI) signed an MOU which sets out the scope of a potential transaction whereby SSI would acquire from Corus the Teesside Cast Products (TCP) business in a transaction valued at approximately USD 500 million. Tinplate Company of India Ltd became a subsidiary of the company with effect from April 01, 2011, consequent to increase in the companys shareholding in the Tinplate Company of India Ltd from 42.88% to 59.45%. This increase is due to automatic and compulsory conversion of 3% fully conve rtible debentures of Rs 100 each held by the company into equity shares on April 01, 2011. In April 2011, the company and Krosaki Harima Corporation (KHC) signed definitive agreements to induct KHC as a strategic partner in Tata Refractories Ltd (TRL). Under this arrangement, KHC will acquire 51% equity stake out of TSLs current 77.46% stake in TRL. As per the scheme of amalgamation, Centennial Steel Company Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary company was amalgamated with the Company with effect from September 27, 2011. In January 2012, the company secured a contract from Siemens Wind Power to supply 25,000 tones of profiled steel plate for wind towers. Tata Steel will deliver 25,000 tones of profiled plate (cut into the desired shape) between April and September 2012. The company is implementing an expansion project at Jamshedpur Works to increase its crude steel capacity from 6.8 million tonnes per annum to 9.7 million tonnes per annum. The facilities under this project are scheduled t o be completed in FY 2011-12. Simultaneously, the Company is implementing a few other major capital schemes at Jamshedpur which include Coke Plant Battery No. 11, Coke Dry Quenching at Coke Ovens Batteries 5, 6 7 and a new mill for producing Full Hard Cold Rolled (FHCR) coils. The company is also setting up a Continuous Annealing and Processing Line at Jamshedpur with a capacity of 0.6 mtpa under a joint venture company with Nippon Steel Corporation (NSC), Japan. The line will produce automotive cold rolled fl at products and address the needs of Indian automotive customers for highgrade cold rolled steel sheets. The preliminary work on the 6 mtpa greenfield steel plant at Kalinganagar, Odisha is in progress. DIVIDEND AND RETENTION POLICY OF Tata Steel Ltd. The firms dividend decision has in the last ten to fifteen years received considerable attention from financial analysts and academics.Divergent views have been expressed and it is understood that the controversy has not been resolved,although the lack of new authorship on the subject in resent times may lead one to conclude that tha debate is deadlocked. A dividend is a payment made by a company to its shareholders. A company can retain its profit for the purpose of re-investment in the business operations (known as retained earnings), or it can distribute the profit among its shareholders in the form of dividends. A dividend is not regarded as an expenditure; rather, it is considered a distribution of assets among shareholders. The majority of companies keep a component of their profits as retained earnings and distribute the rest as dividend. The different types of dividends include: Special dividend: Normally, public companies declare their dividends on a specific schedule; however, they also have the option to declare a dividend at any time. This type of dividend is referred to as a special dividend. Cash Dividends Firms distribute as cash dividends a certain percentage of annual earnings in payout rates. Ordnance The date of declaration It is the date a resolution to pay cash dividends to stockholders of record on a specific future date is approved by the board of directors. At that date the firm incurs a liability prompting the recognition of a short-term debt-Dividends Payable and the debit to either Retained Earnings or Cash Dividend Declared. The ex-dividend date It is the date the stock stops selling with dividends attached. The period between the date of declaration and the ex-dividend date is used by the firm to update its stockholders ledger. The date of record It is the date at which the stockholders figuring in the stockholders ledger are entitled to the cash dividend. No entry is required. The date of payment It is the date at which the firm distributes the dividend checks and eliminates the dividend payable as a liability. Property Dividends Firms may elect to declare a property dividend that is payable in nonmonetary assets rather than declaring a cash dividend. Because a property dividend can be classified as a non-reciprocal nonmonetary transfer to owners, the property distributed is restated at fair market value at the date of declaration and a gain or loss is recognized. Stock dividend: Given in the form of bonus shares or stocks of the issuing company or a subsidiary company. Normally, they are offered on the basis of a prorata allotment (1) Regular Dividend. By dividend we mean regular dividend paid annually, proposed by the board of directors and approved by the shareholders in general meeting. It is also known as final dividend because it is usually paid after the finalization of accounts. It sis generally paid in cash as a percentage of paid up capital, say 10 % or 15 % of the capital. Sometimes, it is paid per share. No dividend is paid on calls in advance or calls in arrears. The company is, however, authorised to make provisions in the Articles prohibiting the payment of dividend on shares having calls in arrears. (2) Interim Dividend. If Articles so permit, the directors may decide to pay dividend at any time between the two Annual General Meeting before finalizing the accounts. It is generally declared and paid when company has earned heavy profits or abnormal profits during the year and directors which to pay the profits to shareholders. Such payment of dividend in between the two Annual General meetings before finalizing the accounts is called Interim Dividend. No Interim Dividend can be declared or paid unless depreciation for the full year (not proportionately) has been provided for. It is, thus,, an extra dividend paid during the year requiring no need of approval of the Annual General Meeting. It is paid in cash. (3) Stock-Dividend: Companies, not having good cash position, generally pay dividend in the form of shares by capitalizing the profits of current year and of past years. Such shares are issued instead of paying dividend in cash and called Bonus Shares. Basically there is no change in the equity of shareholders. Certain guidelines have been used by the company Law Board in respect of Bonus Shares. (4) Scrip Dividend. Scrip dividends are used when earnings justify a dividend, but the cash position of the company is temporarily weak. So, shareholders are issued shares and debentures of other companies. Such payment of dividend is called Scrip Dividend. Shareholders generally do not like such dividend because the shares or debentures, so paid are worthless for the shareholders as directors would use only such investment is which were not . Such dividend was allowed before passing of the Companies (Amendment) Act 1960, but thereafter this unhealthy practice was stopped. (5) Bond Dividends. In rare instances, dividends are paid in the form of debentures or bounds or notes for a long-term period. The effect of such dividend is the same as that of paying dividend in scrips. The shareholders become the secured creditors is the bonds has a lien on assets(6) Property Dividend. Sometimes, dividend is paid in the form of asset instead of payment of dividend in cash. The distribution of dividend is made whenever the asset is no longer required in the business such as investment or stock of finished good sods. But, it is, however, important to note that in India, distribution of dividend is permissible in the form of cash or bonus shares only. Distribution of dividend in any other form is not allowed. Factors affecting divided decision or determinants of divided decision The financial management has to take a decision regarding the distribution of dividend. These are two possible ways of dealing with the distribution of profit. The profit should either be retained in the business or distributed to the shareholders. Retained profit plays an important role in the future growth and expansion of the enterprise, because these are internal sources of financing and do not involve floatation costs and legal formalities. As such the company will adopt the policy of residual or passive (lesser) distribution, so far it can profitably invest its retained earnings as a source of internal financing. The term residual distribution here means the declaration of dividend out of the profit remaining left after internal financing of the company. The dividend may be declared as higher rates if the intention of the company is to increase the value of shares. The dividend decision is also affected by the preference of shareholders. Let us now discuss the factors determining divided decisions: (1)Financial requirement of the company: If the company has profitable investment opportunities in the enterprise itself it will declare divided at lower rates. Meeting long-term financial requirement out of its own resources is always in the interest of the company, because it is cheaper due to absence of floatation costs and legal formalities. Higher divided will declared by the companies having few long-term investment opportunities. (2)Availability of funds: The liquidity of a company or availability of cash resources is prime consideration in divided decision. The greater the liquidity of a company, the greater is its ability to pay dividend. The liquidity of the company is strongly influenced by the firms investment and financing decisions. The investment decision determines the rate of asset expansion and the firms need for funds and the financing decision determines the way in which this need will be financed. (3)Stability of dividends: It is always in the interest of the company, investors and shareholders to follow the policy of stable dividend, because it resolves the uncertainty in the mind of investors and satisfies their for current income. Financial institution also like companies, declaring dividend regularly at stable rates. No company would like to ignore investment by financial institutions. In these circumstances the company may adopt one of the three following policies: A.Constant dividend per share or constant dividend rate:- According to this policy dividend is declared at constant rate every year. The rate may be increased if new level of profit is earned. B.Constant pay out ratio:- Dividend at fixed percentage of earning is paid every year. As earnings go on fluctuating every year, so the dividend also fluctuates. C.Constant dividend per share plus extra dividend :-Under the policy, minimum dividend per share is fixed. In case of extra earnings, extra dividend may be declared. Investors are kept satisfied with the supplementary dividend. Extra dividend may be taken as interior (4)Preferences of shareholders:- Shareholders are owners of the company, so their preferences must be given due consideration. Small, retired and salaried people prefer regular income. They are interested in stable and regular dividend. Wealthy investors are interested in capital gain. They are prepared to forego their current income over the expected higher income. (5)Capital market consideration:- Companies can raise their additional funds either by issue of shares or by retaining their profit. If the capital market is favorable the company will raise funds by issue of shares and declare dividends at higher rates. In case the capital market is unfavorable, the company will go in for retained earnings and declare dividends at lower rates. (6)Legal restrictions:- The companies act has laid down certain restrictions regarding payment of dividend. The company can use its current profits or past profits after providing for depreciation for the payment of dividend. The company cannot pay dividend out of its paid up capital. Company will have to satisfy itself, whether it has sufficient cash to make payment of dividends. The company is future required to make payment of interest before dividends are paid. (7)Information value:- The company should be aware of the possible impact of dividend decision on valuation of its shares. Most companies look at the dividend pay out ratios of other companies in the industry, particularly those having about the same growth. Investors expectation also plays an important role in dividend decision. If investors expectation is for high dividend pay out then company should take that into account while making a dividend decision. On the other hand, if investor expects a high market value of shares then company may decide for low dividend payout for future expansion plans. (8)Borrowing capability:- The borrowing capability of a firm affects dividend decision in the sense that high dividend payout is possible with greater borrowing capability and vice-versa. This ability to borrow can be in the form of credit or a revolving credit from the bank or simply the informal willingness of a financial institution to extend credit. The large and more established a company; the better is its access to capital markets. Issue for bonus shares:- Sometimes the company can also issue bonus shares, known as stock dividend in place of making payment of dividend in cash, It increases the number of shares and the capital base of the company, it keeps investors happy, The issues of bonus shares is an integral part of dividend policy. Dividend s Declared Announcement Date Effective Date Dividend Type Dividend (%) Remarks 18/05/2012 16/07/2012 Final 120% 26/05/2011 04/07/2011 Final 120% 27/05/2010 12/07/2010 Final 80% 25/06/2009 06/07/2009 Final 160% 26/06/2008 18/07/2008 Final 160% AGM 17/05/2007 08/06/2007 Final 155% 155% Dividend ( 130% for the year 2006-07 and special dividend of 25% on occasion of the Cenetenary year of the company.) 15/05/2006 26/05/2006 Final 130% AGM 19/05/2005 07/06/2005 Final 130% AGM 07/05/2004 08/06/2004 Final 100% AGM 08/05/2003 09/06/2003 Final 80% AGM 30/05/2002 28/06/2002 Final N.A.% Nil Final Dividend 02/04/2002 28/05/2002 Interim 40% 08/05/2001 Final 50% AGM 23/03/2000 Interim 40% 20/05/1999 Final 40% AGM Dividend 22/05/1998 Final 40% 23/05/1997 Final 45% Dividend Declared Dividend which was given to shareholder of Tata Steel Ltd. Directors have recommended a dividend of Rs. 7/- per Equity Share (last year Rs. 13/- per Equity Share on pre bonus share capital) for the financial year ended March 31, 2010, amounting to Rs. 2,430 crore (inclusive of tax of Rs. 346 crore) one of the highest ever payout by any private sector domestic company. The dividend will be paid to members whose names appear in the Register of Members as on May 11, 2010; in respect of shares held in dematerialised form, it will be paid to members whose names are furnished by National Securities Depository Limited and Central Depository Services (India) Limited as beneficial owners. The dividend payout for the year under review has been formulated in accordance with the Companys policy to pay sustainable dividend linked to long term performance, keeping in view the Companys need for capital for its growth plans and the intent to finance such plans through internal accruals to the maximum. Bonus share paid to Tata Steel Ltd. Announcement Date Bonus Ratio Record Date Ex-Bonus Date 07/06/2004 1 : 2 12/08/2004 11/08/2004 11/09/1987 2 : 5 11/09/1981 2 : 5 11/09/1967 2 : 5 11/09/1959 1 : 5 11/09/1954 1 : 1

Sunday, May 17, 2020

White Bed, White Walls, All Surfaces Are Padded - 1462 Words

White bed, white walls, all surfaces are padded. I am patient 133 of the Genevieve Oaks Asylum for the Insane. I sit up. I can hear the rain coming down outside. First the pitter patter of small drops hitting the ground, but soon the pouring of water from the roof splashes down, as the intensity of the rain increases. Through the dark I can see my cellmate staring at me with a blank expression. His name is Amon and I’ve known him all my life, even before I was a patient in this asylum. He’s unusually tall, thin, with black hair and very quiet. He is my only friend in this world. I can’t sleep. Every I toss and I turn and the rare moments when I can drift off, I always wake to something . I can hear it, a faint screaming coming from deep beneath the floor. But maybe it s just my imagination. Just the sound of the wind blowing through the trees. I hope. But the next night, a night the same as the others, I hear the same sound. I Turned to Amon who never seems to sleep and spoke about it. â€Å"just the wind† He reassured me, but deep down I have a feeling that s not it. Morning came, we go through the motions of the day: Mealtime, showertime, freetime. During free time we’re permitted to walk freely in an open room. The doctors often come by during this time to ask questions. Questions about how we’re doing, our mental conditions etc. They observe and analyse us as if we’re lab specimens. With plastic smiles and false friendliness, they talk at us.Show MoreRelatedWhite Bed, White Walls, All Surfaces Are Padded1462 Words   |  6 PagesWhite bed, white walls, all surfaces are padded. I am patient 133 of the Genevieve Oaks Asylum for the Insane. I sit up. I can hear the rain coming down outside. First the pitter patter of small drops hitting the ground, but soon the pouring of water from the roof splashes down, as the intensity of the rain increases. Through the dark I can see my cellmate staring at me with a blank expression. His name is Amon and I’ve known him all my life, even before I was a patient in this asylum. He’sRead MoreBed, White Walls, All Surfaces Are Padded1528 Words   |  7 PagesPatient 133 White bed, white walls, all surfaces are padded. I am patient 133 of the Genevieve Oaks Asylum for the Insane. I sit up. I can hear the rain coming down outside. First the pitter patter of small drops hitting the ground, but soon the pouring of water from the roof splashes down, as the intensity of the rain increases. Through the dark I can see my cellmate staring at me with a blank expression. His name is Amon and I’ve known him all my life, even before I was a patient in thisRead MoreSummary Of The Night 2117 Words   |  9 Pagesred, white, and blue. The white towel wrapped around her neck brushed his shoulder, a brilliant duality against her sable hair that consumed light, held it close, and refused to set it free. Daniel stood behind her; her petite frame, occupied too little area, and his too much. Tam reached into her purse, pulled out her key card, and the door lock flashed green. She pushed the door open into a small room filled with a glass desk, an armchair, and a king sized bed. Next to the bed a glass wall separatedRead MoreHouse Keeping3357 Words   |  14 Pagespublic tends to think of the housekeeping as the department that makes the bed, empties the ashtrays and wastebaskets, tidies up the bathroom and leaves fresh towels. The truth of the matter is that it takes more manpower to accomplish housekeeping’s almost countless functions than those of any other department in the hotel. Housekeeping’s responsibilities may begin with fabrics, and progress to the selection and purchase of all furniture and furnishings. It encompass not only their cleaning but alsoRead MoreShort Story Chapter 19753 Words   |  40 Pagesgarment fit tightly over his body, the same clothes the marshfolk wore when they came to court. But this suit was different, more vivid, more alive. Janto could not guess the material. Two bands of color overlapped each other in a swirling pattern all over it, the exact shades of the needles and tree trunks. Through a trick of the eye, they shifted back and forth. Though he was only as tall as Janto’s chest, the man’s arm and leg muscles strained against the cloth. No matter his height, he wouldRead MoreAnatomy of the Female Reproductive System10466 Words   |  42 Pagesas large, each ovary is held in place in the fork of the iliac blood vessels within the peritoneal cavity by several ligaments. The ovarian ligament anchors the ovary medially to the uterus; the suspensory ligament anchors it laterally to the pelvic wall; and the mesovarium (mez†³o-va†²re-um) suspends it in between. The suspensory ligament and the mesovarium are part of the broad ligament, a peritoneal fold that â€Å"tents† over the uterus and supports the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina. The ovarian ligamentsRead MoreFeminine Mystique12173 Words   |  49 Pagespickling, canning, being very social with my neighbors, joining committees, running PTA teas. I can do it all, and I like it, but it doesn t leave you anything to think about — any feeling of who you are. ... I love the kids and Bob and my home. There s no problem you can even put a name to. But I m desperate. I begin to feel I have no personality. I m a server of food and putter-on of pants and a bed maker, somebody who can be called on when you want something. But who am I? A similar sense of incompleteness

Friday, May 8, 2020

Analysis Of Michel Foucault s The Of The Docile Women

Though Bartkey’s argument demonstrates logic and cohesive arguments, she fails to impress readers with her solution to end the legacy of the docile women. Sandra Bartkey commences her argument with an introduction to Michel Foucault. She explains how Foucault demonstrates the presence of self-policing in society through the usage of the Panopticon. The Panopticon is a prison where there stands one central guard tower and rows of prison cells surrounding the tower. Sunlight shines into the cells creating a clear view for the guards that enables them to perceive everything that occurs in these cells. Though the scarcity of guards limits the amount of prisoners that can be viewed at one time, the prisoners feel watched at all times.†¦show more content†¦Hence, even though a liberatory note is sounded in Foucault’s critique of power, his analysis, as a whole reproduces that sexism which is endemic throughout Western political.† (169). In summary, women remain considerably further prone to self-policing themselves to become the docile woman – a standard in society today. The first way women police themselves happens through media, diet and exercise. Bartkey defines the standard for women’s figures today, by saying â€Å"The current body of fashion is taunt, small breasted, narrow-hipped, and of a slimness bordering on emancipation; it is a silhouette that seems more appropriate to an adolescent boy or a newly pubescent girl than to an adult woman. Since ordinary women have normally quite different dimensions, they must of course diet† (170). The author states that due to many women not fitting this model-like image, they are forced to diet and exercise. The exercises that women partake in are designed to slim the body down in certain areas – the hips, thighs, etc. – to ensure they fit this body standard, therefore policing themselves to fit society’s standards. The second way women police themselves happens through body and facial constriction. Women sit with their legs crossed, their arms in their lap and hunched over, while men are known to sit with their legs widely spread out. The women’s smaller posture only builds on the idea that they are meant to be

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Organizational Culture And Its Effect On Individual...

Introduction Leadership behaviors, office politics, team building, and effective meeting strategies, as discussed in the previous are components that allude to one large apparatus of organizations—organizational culture. Organizational culture provides guidelines for which leaders are inspired, for how colleagues act toward one another, for how teams are built, and for how visions are achieved. As a result, it is vital to not only understand the previously described components of culture, but culture as a construct; culture as a whole. The culture of an organization be so important as to reflect the intentions and direction that an organization is heading. Weak, toxic cultures could be the ruin of any organization. In order to change culture, it is especially vital to grasp the nuances of its effect on individual perception of authority, behavior, and learning. Thus, this paper utilizes the readings in this session to discuss and analyze organizational culture as well as the dynamic charac teristics that create and perpetuate such cultures. Organizational Culture In order to create an effective dialogue about organizational culture and its facets, so that learning and change can later be implement if necessary, culture must first be defined in some appreciable means. For the purpose of this analysis, organizational culture will refer to â€Å"a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations† (Robbins Judge, 1993).Show MoreRelatedAn Introduction to Organizational Behavior1638 Words   |  7 PagesAn Introduction to Organizational Behavior 1. Define organizational behavior (OB) and explain its roots - a field of study that seeks to understand, explain, predict and change human behavior, both individual and collective, in the organizational context - includes 3 levels ï  ® individual: employee motivation and perception ï  ® group: teams, communication, job design, and leadership ï  ® organization-wide: change, culture and organizational structure ï  ® interorganizational (network): outsourcingRead MoreDoc, Docx, Pdf1631 Words   |  7 PagesContents Organizational justice: 1 1: Distributive justice: 1 2: procedural justice: 2 3 interactional justice: 2 Importance of organizational justice: 2 CONDITIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE IN PAKISTAN 3 Organizational citizenship behavior: 3 Definition and concept: 3 Kinds of organizational citizenship Behavior: 3 Altruism: 3 Conscientiousness: 4 Civic virtue: 4 Importance of organization citizenship behavior: 4 Organizational justice: Organizational justice showsRead MoreEssay Organizational Structure1196 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction: This case work will be talking about the Organization’s structure and it significant effects on it members. I will examine the Behavioral of different designs and determine which of the different Organizations the best is and what the effect on the members of the Organization is 1. What might those effects be? I have included several examples of Organizational consequences and effect that could damage the employees motivation to continue working as a strong worker and a motivated employeeRead MoreManagement Theories And Mentorship Programs1649 Words   |  7 Pagesliving; leaders are always under scrutiny from their subordinates, who are keen on picking things that concern them. Due to the greater effects on individuals’ well-being both within and outside the organization, it is imperative for managers to learn how to make appropriate situations for work to prosper. The Management Relationship Positioned highly in the organizational hierarchy, managers exert pressure on every employee’s performance, whether they are physically present or absent. Although the inherentRead More‘Organizational Culture Can Be One of the Most Important Means of Improving Organizational Performance.’ Debate and Discuss.1357 Words   |  6 Pages‘Organizational Culture can be one of the most important means of improving organizational performance.’ Debate and discuss. Every Organization has a culture that constitutes the expected, supported and accepted way of work and behaviour.  Ã‚  These influence everyone s perception of the business from the chief executive to the lowest rank. Organisational culture can be described as the shared values, principles, traditions and ways of doing things that influence the way organizational members actRead MoreOrganizational Behavior Of An Automotive Manufacturing Environment1601 Words   |  7 PagesOrganizational Behavior Organizational behavior is composed of many systems working both independently and dependently to influence the behavior of an organization’s employees. The textbook defines organizational behavior as, â€Å"the field of study devoted to understanding, explaining and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations† (Colquitt, LePine Wesson, 2013). In attempt to further define, three subjects from an automotive manufacturing environmentRead MoreStudy Of Organizational Behavior ( Ob )3108 Words   |  13 PagesSTUDY OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR INTRODUCTION The study of Organizational Behavior (OB) is related to individuals, group of people working together in teams. The study becomes more challenging when situational factors interact. No two individuals are likely to behave in the same manner in a particular work situation. It is the predictability of a manager about the expected behavior of an individual. There are no absolutes in human behavior. It is the human factor that is contributory to the productivityRead MoreJob Involvement Is A Core Component Of Someone s Contentment With Life1149 Words   |  5 Pagesattitude towards an organization is the job involvement. It is the extent to which employees identify with their job, become active in it, and take it as a core of their self-worth (Steers, 1981). Job involvement contributes to employees having the perception of self-worth. It also increases the desire of employees to be physically and psychologically being in their work to forestall for promising job outcomes. According to Rabinovitz and Hall (1977), job involvement is a core component of someone’sRead MoreUsing Practical Examples Suggest and Explain Alternative Strategies That Can Be Employed to Mitigate Effects of Factors That Affect Individual Behaviour and Performance1858 Words   |  8 Pagesmitigate effects of factors that affect individual behaviour and performance.† Date: 17 February 2012 Submitted in partial fulfilment of the Master of Commerce Degree in Strategic Management and Corporate Governance Part 1.1â€Æ' Introduction Organizations are composed of individuals and each individual is different from the other. And also the behavior and performance of each individual is influenced by several different factors. Every individual has Particular motives, ambitions, perceptions, andRead MoreThe Leadership Theory And Practice1170 Words   |  5 Pagesfatal shooting of Michael Brown by a police officer on August 9, 2014, in Ferguson, Missouri. The purpose of this paper identified trait theories, leadership theories and characteristics that have molded or are molding the policing culture. Change must occur if the culture of police organizations are going to meet the demands of the 21st century and several issues affecting this change were discussed. A review of the leadership theories and various styles of leadership was seen as being the styles

High School and Advance Placement Classes Free Essays

Ever since I can remember, my ambitions were to make this world a better place by solving crimes and putting criminals behind bars. I am truly motivated to contribute to this patriotic country. I will risk my life for it if that is what it takes. We will write a custom essay sample on High School and Advance Placement Classes or any similar topic only for you Order Now My commitment, dedication and effort in my academic and extra-curricular activities will help guide me into my lifetime goals of becoming a criminal psychology, and getting a degree combined with law and psychology. High schools provide students with the chance to prepare for the real world and I refuse not to take advantage of it. For example, the activities that are fostering me into my future are extra-activities and core courses. Drill team has given me the power to adequately deal with the demands and challenges of daily life. All that was expected of me I excelled in. Being a member has helped me flourish into a mature individual. Throughout all of the experiences on drill team, I have developed leadership and social skills that are beneficial in majoring in criminal justice. My director pushed me to the limit to help me grow in the same way they would in criminal justice. In any career they want to excel in. I was able to stay committed and not give up during all those stressful times. Therefore, proving I am ready for what college has in stores for me no matter how hard it gets. In dance, it has helped me become fit from having to dance year round. In most careers in criminal justice it is required that you pass timed test for physical activities. In dance I discovered how passionate I feel about working out. Taking psychology and sociology, will aid me in my lifetime goals because those classes are required in my career path. In completing these courses during high school, it will be a big advantage in helping me to comprehend them in college. I will have prior knowledge. When taking that class in college, I will be prepared for it and I also could take my notes from high school to refer to. It helps me with criminal profiling and provides strategies and suggestions that can be used in the interviewing process of finding the killer or kidnapper. I have been taking Pre-Advance placement and Advance Placement classes since freshman year. Taking advanced placement classes by far has really helped me  get a better understanding of what to expect from college courses. My teachers act like professors therefore I know that professors will treat me like an adult. My instructors teach the way university instructors would and I am still able to obtain exceptional grades in my classes. Advance placement classes boosted my grade point average therefore it will help me get into a wonderful college of my choice. In high school, I am dedicated towards my long time goals. I want to say I was someone in life. I have learned how to balance a job, extra-curricular activities, and my academic performance. These skills will guide me tremendously in my long term goals. My ambitions are to keep this world a safer place. Even if it means not having fun and focusing on my future I am driven enough to do it. If I want to be successful and get a good education and career I must have determination, encouragement, and fulfillment. Success is finding your way to reach your goals in life. It is a journey which has several peaks that build on one another. It comes from within while realizing what my own strengths and weaknesses are to determine my accomplishments. In high school I am given this opportunity that will help me with any barrier in life. I want to be my children`s role model one day. I want to be someone they can look up to and I am willing to work for it. How to cite High School and Advance Placement Classes, Papers